spring+junit4时用Junit单元测试遇到的bug:java.lang.ExceptionInInitializerError

一、详细错误日志:

Java.lang.ExceptionInInitializerError
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source)
at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Unknown Source)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AnnotatedBuilder.buildRunner(AnnotatedBuilder.java:31)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AnnotatedBuilder.runnerForClass(AnnotatedBuilder.java:24)
at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:57)
at org.junit.internal.builders.AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.runnerForClass(AllDefaultPossibilitiesBuilder.java:29)
at org.junit.runners.model.RunnerBuilder.safeRunnerForClass(RunnerBuilder.java:57)
at org.junit.internal.requests.ClassRequest.getRunner(ClassRequest.java:24)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.createUnfilteredTest(JUnit4TestLoader.java:84)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.createTest(JUnit4TestLoader.java:70)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestLoader.loadTests(JUnit4TestLoader.java:43)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:444)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:675)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:382)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:192)
Caused by: java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to find class [org.junit.runners.model.MultipleFailureException]: SpringJUnit4ClassRunner requires JUnit 4.9 or higher.
(这才是真正的原因)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.<clinit>(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:102)
... 18 more

二、具体描述:
由于第一次用spring+Junit4进行单元测试,对他们了解不够深入,出现这个bug时真的是手忙脚乱的,各种百度,各种尝试就是解决不了,网上好多方法都试了就是不行,现在想来不是网上的解决方法不行,而是我遇到的问题和他们不一样啊。网上说java.lang.ExceptionInInitializerError错误是在加载静态代码块时产生的等等等,但是在这个阶段真的有任何可能发生的错误。身为菜鸟的我根本无法一步步分析啊。
问题解决:
一个偶然的机会看到了错误日志的最后一行,突然明白了,原来是版本的问题,我用的是spring4.2.4.RELEASE和junit4.8,显然springtest需要最少Junit4.9,马上动手更换了Junit4.9,瞬间所有问题都没了。

Eclipse下引入junit的两种方法:

1、右击选中的project-》build path-》add libraries-》选中junit,next直到finish

2、由http://sourceforge.net/projects/junit/?source=navbar
或者http://www.junit.org (重定向到Github)下载junit的jar包,保存在本地磁盘,在Eclipse当中右击选中的project-》build path-》add external Archieves-》找到前面下载的junit jar包引入即可

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已标记关键词 清除标记
java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to load ApplicationContext at org.springframework.test.context.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:94) at org.springframework.test.context.DefaultTestContext.getApplicationContext(DefaultTestContext.java:72) at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:117) at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:83) at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:212) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:200) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:252) at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:254) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:217) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:83) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:68) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:163) at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137) at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:119) at com.intellij.junit4.JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit4IdeaTestRunner.java:42) at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:234) at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:74) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:498) at com.intellij.rt.execution.application.AppMain.main(AppMain.java:144) Caused by: java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Cannot load an ApplicationContext with a NULL 'contextLoader'. Consider annotating your test class with @ContextConfiguration or @ContextHierarchy. at org.springframework.util.Assert.notNull(Assert.java:134) at org.springframework.test.context.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContextInternal(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:61) at org.springframework.test.context.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:86) ... 29 common frames omitted 出现的错误![图片说明](https://img-ask.csdn.net/upload/201801/22/1516617770_699659.png)
这个是报错信息: ![图片说明](https://img-ask.csdn.net/upload/201903/25/1553483733_450518.png) org.springframework.beans.factory.UnsatisfiedDependencyException: Error creating bean with name 'cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms.XsApplicationTests': Unsatisfied dependency expressed through field 'reimbursementInfoProcService'; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms.system.test.service.ReimbursementInfoProcService' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)} at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:587) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.inject(InjectionMetadata.java:91) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:373) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1344) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.autowireBeanProperties(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:400) at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:118) at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:83) at org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:44) at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:242) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:227) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:289) at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:291) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:246) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:97) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:70) at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363) at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:190) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestReference.run(JUnit4TestReference.java:86) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:38) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:538) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:760) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:460) at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:206) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms.system.test.service.ReimbursementInfoProcService' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)} at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoMatchingBeanFound(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1509) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1104) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1065) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:584) ... 29 common frames omitted 这个是测试类代码: package cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms; import java.math.BigDecimal; import java.util.Date; import javax.ws.rs.core.Application; import org.junit.Test; import org.junit.runner.RunWith; import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired; import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest; import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner; import org.springframework.test.context.web.WebAppConfiguration; import cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms.system.test.PO.ReimbursementInfoProc; import cn.com.zhshzh.xs.pms.system.test.service.ReimbursementInfoProcService; import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j; // 获取启动类,加载配置,确定装载 Spring 程序的装载方法,它回去寻找 主配置启动类(被 @SpringBootApplication 注解的) @SpringBootTest(classes = Application.class) // 让 JUnit 运行 Spring 的测试环境, 获得 Spring 环境的上下文的支持 @RunWith(SpringRunner.class) @WebAppConfiguration @Slf4j public class XsApplicationTests { @Autowired private ReimbursementInfoProcService reimbursementInfoProcService; @Test public void TestCase() { ReimbursementInfoProc reimbursementInfoProc = new ReimbursementInfoProc(); reimbursementInfoProc.setProcessId("1"); reimbursementInfoProc.setPostId("1"); reimbursementInfoProc.setReimbursementPerson("23456"); reimbursementInfoProc.setReimbursementMoney(new BigDecimal("50.00")); reimbursementInfoProc.setReimbursementDate(new Date()); reimbursementInfoProc.setApprovalOpinion("审批通过"); reimbursementInfoProc.setCreateBy("23456"); reimbursementInfoProc.setUpdateBy("23456"); try { reimbursementInfoProcService.insertReimbursementInfo(reimbursementInfoProc); } catch (Exception e) { log.error("message", e); } } }
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